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Women generally have better cardiac function and survival than do men in the face of cardiac disease; however, this is progressively lost when comparing postmenopausal women with age matched men. Animal model of cardiac disease mirror what is seen in humans. Sex hormones contribute ificantly to sex based difference in cardiac functioning and in its disease outcome.
Objective: It is well established that disease states are associated with biochemical changes e. Recently, nontargeted methods have been used to identify the small molecules metabolites in a biological sample to uncover many of the biochemical changes associated with a disease state or chemical response.
Role of biological sex in normal cardiac function and in its disease outcome – a review
Given that these experimental may be influenced by the composition of the cohort, in the present study we assessed the effects of age, sex and race on the relative concentrations of small molecules metabolites in the blood of healthy adults.
Methods: Using gas- and liquid-chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry, a nontargeted metabolomic analysis was performed on plasma collected from an age- and sex-balanced cohort of individuals. : Of the more than unique compounds that were detected, ificant changes in the relative concentration of more than metabolites were associated with age.
Many fewer differences were associated with sex and fewer still with race. Changes in protein, energy and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress, were observed with increasing age. Tricarboxylic acid intermediates, creatine, essential and nonessential amino acids, urea, ornithine, polyamines and oxidative stress markers e. Compounds related to lipid metabolism, including fatty acids, carnitine, beta-hydroxybutyrate and cholesterol, were lower in the blood of younger individuals. By contrast, relative concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate a proposed antiaging androgen were lowest in the oldest age group.
Certain xenobiotics e. Conclusions: Our nontargeted analytical approach detected a large of metabolites, including those that were found to be statistically altered with age, sex or race. Age-associated changes were more pronounced than those related to differences in sex or race in the population group we studied. Age, sex and race can be confounding factors when comparing different groups in clinical studies. Future studies to determine the influence of diet, lifestyle and medication are also warranted.
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Analysis of the adult human plasma metabolome
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Abstract Objective: It is well established that disease states are associated with biochemical changes e. Similar articles Genotoxicity of 1,3-butadiene and its epoxy intermediates. Walker VE, et al. Res Rep Health Eff Inst.
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Cited by articles Lipids: biomarkers of healthy aging. Almeida I, et al. Epub Apr Global biochemical analysis of plasma, serum and whole blood collected using various anticoagulant additives. Kennedy AD, et al. PLoS One. Metabolomics atures of Aging: Recent Advances.
Adav SS, Wang Y. Adav SS, et al. Aging Dis. Batth IS, et al. Int J Mol Sci. Carlsson H, et al. See all "Cited by" articles. Publication types Comparative Study Actions. MeSH terms Adult Actions.
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